Considering all existing and new challenges imposed on the treatment process of (municipal) wastewater, there are convincing arguments for rethinking the system. A key element is the concentration of wastewater early in the process. What are the reasons for concentrating wastewater first?

  • As a general rule in water technology, the more concentrated the liquid stream, the more efficient treatment processes are
  • The concentrate can be treated anaerobically (generation of methane)
  • Recovery of valuable compounds (e.g. nutrients) and energy from the concentrate are favoured
  • Trace organics (e.g. pharmaceuticals) are managed more efficiently
  • The emission of greenhouse gases (esp. N2O) is significantly reduced
  • And last but not least: the clean water flow can be reused in high-end applications


The principle of Forward Osmosis (FO) is a general part of natural biological systems. In our engineered FO process, a semi-permeable membrane is placed between the pre-clarified wastewater and the ‘draw solution’ (typically a concentrated salt solution). The osmotic gradient between the two flows generates a water flow through the membrane, resulting in a concentrated feed stream and a diluted draw solution. Next, the diluted draw solution and clean water are recovered, and the concentrate stream is further treated.

Due to substantial flow and quality variations, wastewater is a challenging application for FO technology. Over the past years, we have upscaled the process to a capacity of 50 m3/day. A patent application for an optimized configuration has been filed.


The CoRe Water team is a cooperation of Allied Waters and  KWR, relying on a strong track record in innovation and FO expertise. We are happy to work together to evaluate the potential of the CoRe Water concept in any specific case.

Allied Waters: driving the circular economy.

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